|Disclaimer: I am not a spokesperson for the US Coast Guard or ABYC. For an official interpretation of regulations or standards you must contact the US Coast Guard or other organization referenced.. More.....|
Quality Control (Quality Assurance)
Most boat builders and manufacturers believe they are making a quality product. What does that mean?
Quality control is simply the process by which you make sure every product you turn out is the same as the last in terms of construction, reliability, durability and appearance. Quality control does not mean you have a quality product. To have a quality product you must start with design, the components that go into the product, and the workmanship when building it. Quality control is repeatability. Quality assurance is basically the same thing but also implies that it is also a quality product.
So what is quality? Quality is relative. Quality is relative to price, workmanship, and intended use. If you are building a work boat for hauling fifty five gallon barrels of oil around, you are not going to give it a yacht finish. But you will build it to take a beating and be very reliable. In short, a quality product for the intended use. But if you are building a high priced boat, that is touted to be a quality product, then you do not want problems with minor things like lights that don't work or a finish that has cosmetic defects. A quality product does what you intend it to do, reliably and for a long time.
Even if you are building something with a yacht finish the quality of the product depends on the intended market. Is your product intended for entry level, low cost market, or high end, spare no expense, high cost market, or somewhere in between? The amount of time spent making it, and the cost of the parts and materials determine the cost of the finished goods, which determines the price the customer pays. This doesn't necessarily mean a low cost item is a piece of junk. If it is put together well, with good materials it can be a high quality product and still have a reasonable price.
So enough of philosophy. Now for the more practical side of quality control. Control is the key word here. You need to control your processes as well as the parts and materials you use.
For instance, fiberglass laminate lay-up; the quality of a fiberglass laminate is dependent on the type of glass, the resin, the resin glass ratio, and the lay-up schedule and the ability of the person doing this. In each hull you want the laminate to be as nearly the same as possible from boat to boat. This means putting in place procedures that make sure that the same amount of glass, the same amount of resin, the same cure times, are all used to get a consistent product. The same goes for wood products. If building a plywood boat, don't just buy the cheapest plywood you can. Develop a relationship with a supplier who will get you consistently good quality wood. In a small shop this is relatively easy to do because you have direct control over what is being done. In a larger shop with many employees it is harder because you personally have less control.
So, as the first step in the process you need to determine what the things are that need to be controlled and what should the tolerances be. For instance, laminate thickness. What should it be, and how much, plus or minus, is ok? What should be the resin glass ratio, and what are the tolerances? Does the wood you use have to be mahogany, or will luan or one of the many substitutes do? Do you insist on real teak? Does the lumber yard understand your needs and let you return wood that isn't up to your standards? These are just a few examples.
Each of these procedures need to be followed for every boat. These need to be written down. Then a process specified for achieving this. for instance, how do you measure how much foam goes in to a compartment? Generally it is sprayed in with a gun and a certain amount is sprayed based on time. You need to establish this so it is done the same way on every boat.
You also need a means of checking. You do not necessarily have to check every single item that goes out the door, although some do this. But you do need to check at regular intervals. For instance one simple way of checking to see if construction of the hull is consistent from boat to boat, is simply weighing it. If you weigh each hull and they are within 1% of each other, then you are being very consistent. Another is to check the barcol hardness of the laminate. Resin glass ratios can be checked with a burn test, and so on.
Another important issue is, who does the checking. In some shops the person doing the work does the checks. In others they have a department whose job is to do all the quality checks.
How ever you do this, you need to check important items at each step in the process, and then have an overall check for systems, finish, and other items as the boat goes out the door. This can be as simple as running the engine, turning on the lights, tooting the horn, etc. Or it can be very detailed. On a visit to Hatteras Yachts I noticed a worker literally repairing scratches and dings in the woodwork. Some were so small I couldn't see them from more that a few feet away. Yet, in addition to the hundreds of other quality checks Hatteras does, an inspector goes over every surface of the boat looking for cosmetic defects and someone repairs every single one before the boat leaves the factory. That is quality control!
You don't have to be that meticulous, some would say, over the top. But considering what someone pays for a luxury yacht, the customer expects that kind of quality control. But you should check all the systems to make sure they are operating properly. The electrical system, fuel system, engines, lights, electronics, plumbing, etc, all should be run to see if there are any problems. Some builders leave this up to their dealers. I wouldn't, but that is my personal preference. If you have a good working relationship with your dealers then maybe this will work for you.
Again, it is all about having established procedures that are followed consistently, quality checks that are done consistently and final checks to make sure everything is working.
Last but not least, do the paperwork. A history should be kept on each boat. Start a record with the Hull ID number when you lay up the hull. Have a place for every quality check and every test. Do not put just a check or date, but put down the results. If the fuel system was checked put down, Fuel system checked, the date, what psi, for how long. Passed, failed? Keep this record with each boat until it goes out the door, then file it with the records on the boat. For that matter you should have a separate file for each boat built.
Parts and Materials
Another facet of quality control is controlling your suppliers. Find out their reputation before you buy. You should get to know them and have an agreement with them about delivering parts or materials that aren't up to standard. Develop a good working relationship with them. If you have a buyer make sure your buyer understands the need for good materials of consistent quality. Price does not always mean quality, but on the other hand cheap is not always a bargain.
If the parts and materials you are getting vary in quality, talk to your suppliers. If nothing changes, terminate the relationship and find a better supplier that will give you consistent quality. Put something in your agreement or contract with suppliers about quality, and what will happen if they don't live up to the agreement. Also give them incentives for providing good quality parts and materials, especially if they are always on time with the right stuff. This could be as simple as a clause saying, that after a certain period, and having met all the quality requirements, you will buy exclusively from them. Or it could include bonuses. But make sure they understand and agree to (in writing) your quality requirements.
On Line References for Quality Control
|This Web site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. I am making such material available in my efforts to advance understanding of educational, economic, and scientific issues, etc. I believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this Web site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for nonprofit educational purposes. For more information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this Web site for purposes of your own that go beyond "fair use", you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.|